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TOURISM SECTOR: IMPORTANCE TO THE ECONOMY:
Tanzania is tourism sector is among the sectors
with great economic growth potential. It provides a substantial
amount of foreign exchange earnings, employment for 30,000 people
and stimulates other sectors like agriculture thereby contributing
to the economic growth. Its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product
is about 14%, but this is very minimal compared to country's potentials
of the industry.
The country is endowed with numerous tourist attractions.
Tanzania's competative strengths in tourism lie in the abundant
and diverse wildlife, the spectacular landscape and scenery, an
unspoilt environment, friendly people and other economic sectors
that have potential to support the tourist sector such as mining
sector. The many natural attractions and the vast size of the country
provide opportunities for developing and promoting different tourism
activities ranging from game viewing, safari and beach holiday activities,
mountain climbing, sight seeing, game hunting and photographic safaris.
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The industry's mission is to develop sustainable
quality tourism that is ecologically friendly to the conservation
and restoration of the environment and its people's culture. In
so doing the industry is seeking to maximize the net gains/benefits
that emanate from the various tourism activities.
is one of the unique destinations in Africa that has yet to be discovered
by many. It is a land of many wonders hobbling an un-paralled diversity
of fauna and flora. Kilimanjaro, the highest permanently snow-capped
free standing mountain in Africa, the exotic islands of Zanzibar,
the finest game sanctuaries of ruins Serengeti, Tarangire, Lake
Manyara, Ngorongoro Crater, Ruaha Selous impressive ruins of 14th
- 16th Century at Kilwa Kisiwani, Songomnara, Olduvai George and
Laitoti footprints and the Marine park of Mafia island are only
but a few of the living examples of tourist attractions.
The scenery and topography of the country including
its very friendly people harbours the growth of excellent cultural
tourism beach holidays, game hunting, historical and archaeological
ventures and certainly the best wildlife photographic safaris on
the continent. Further information on tourist attractions and services
However, the nation has yet to exploit this sector's
full potential as a way of making Tanzania a favoured tourist destination.
The sector continue to face general deterioration of supportive
infrastructure particularly those related to accessibility and reliability
of international and internal air transport system, water and land
transport as well as communication facilities like telephones.
Also lack of higher quality accommodation and lower
operational costs. Thus there is need for developing and utilizing
tourist attractions through improvement in tourist related facilities
and services which would boost this sector's performance tremendously.
Marketing of tourist products is another essential element to promote
Tanzania's desirable tourist destination.
The human resource is certainly the most important factor of production
because it is capable of transforming all the other factors for
the betterment of human life and human welfare. Developing and utilising
this resource effectively increases its productivity and its capital
value. Thus, human resources development must be one of the leading
objectives on the nation's development agenda.
The government has all along been conscious of the
need for a concerted effort towards human resources development
in Tanzania. The Arusha Declaration was the basic inspiration behind
the fundamental national goals and strategies and these were reflected
in successive national development plans all of which had a triple
focus, i.e. economic growth, equity and self reliance, emphasizing
rural development, mass literacy and the provision of the basic
needs of the population.
The improvement of the people's welfare was the
overriding objective underlying the various measures and programmes
that were embarked upon in the post independence period. The most
notable ones included:
- Social mobilization of rural population through
the villagisation programme, the main aim of which was to ensure
an adequate and equitable provision to communities especially
at grass roots level, of the basic services such as health care,
primary and secondary education and vocational skills training
as well as clean and safe water within easy reach.
- Universal primary education which attained more
than 75 per cent primary school enrollment level during the late
- Mass literacy programmes which at one time recorded
more than 80 per cent coverage of the adult population, and promotion
of Kiswahili as the national language
- Interfacing of work with education (i.e. the
Musoma Resolution), as well as an expansion in the number of primary,
secondary, tertiary and higher education institutions.
The above outlined successes were attained at a
high cost to the government. The approaches adopted were
by excessive government intervention and control which in turn promoted
a heavy bureaucratic system and all the weaknesses it entails, notably,
corruption and inefficiency. Furthermore, the approaches pursued
by the government in the past had a deepening effect on the population
in that the people were reduced to passive participants in national
development programmes and activities. As such, the past approaches
which had been adopted and implemented by the government in developing
human resources in Tanzania were, with time, rendered unsustainable.
Today, the government has adopted another set of
approaches that are more in line with the socio-economic realities
of Tanzania and that of the contemporary world. The government
the various demands of a market oriented economy put on the nation.
One such demand is that citizens compete for jobs in employment
on the basis of their skills and work experience or their own ingenuity.
This approach is based on the new policy objectives
i.e. to reflect the increasing significance of the private sector,
to give greater attention to manpower requirements at the sectoral
and organisational level and finally to leave the market forces
to play a bigger role in order to link manpower planning efforts
to social demand for manpower. A three tier human resources planning
mechanism is being used, that is at the national, sectoral and
Secondly, this recognition on the part of the government
underscores another important policy requirement of ensuring that
education and vocational training at all levels but more so at the
primary and secondary levels is relevant to the basic needs of the
labour market in terms of the practical application of the knowledge
and skills acquired through education and training.
Thirdly, as the national development strategy envisages
the participation of the entire civil society right down to the
grassroots level, the government is stepping up the basic primary
education system in order to ensure not only the widest coverage
of all school age children and youth, but also the acquisition of
basic trade skills that will facilitate self employment.
Another important innovation is government's approach
to human resources development is the determination to undertake
extensive collaboration with relevant private sector institutions
as well as the local Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community
Based Organizations (CBOs) with a view to capitalizing on their
direct knowledge of and contact with people's communities at the
With regard to the contribution of technical assistance
in human resources development, the dominant approach has been to
fill the gaps in high and middle level manpower requirements, and
to help in the training and development of local capacities. This
has been accomplished through the use of foreign experts in specific
projects and through various forms of training programmes.
There have been a number of drawbacks which have
prevented Technical Assistance (TA) from being effective in the
development of human resources. These include poorly designed training
programmes, great differentials in pay between foreign experts and
local counterparts, unqualified TAs, unfamiliarity with work and
cultural habits by foreign experts, distrust of local experts, lack
of suitable local trainees and constraints resulting from the strings
that are sometimes attached to the TA packages by donors.
With the intensification of aid dependence, the
role of technical assistance has increasingly shifted from one of
filling gaps to one of substituting for local human resources. The
local human resources are underutilized partly because of unconducive
working conditions and partly because the technical assistance is
often packaged with other forms of aid (e.g. vehicles, computers
etc.) which may be needed. In some cases, technical assistance is
accepted as a means of mobilizing other forms of aid.
There is need to have a technical cooperation policy
which can address these problems.